History Guild General History Quiz 89
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The stories behind the questions
1. What title did Oliver Cromwell adopt when he ruled England?
Lord Protector – Oliver Cromwell was one of the principal commanders of the Parliamentary New Model Army, which defeated Royalist forces in the English Civil War. He was one of the signatories of Charles I’s death warrant in 1649, and dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament. In 1653 Cromwell dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, taking power as Lord Protector of England. Cromwell died from natural causes in 1658 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded by his son Richard, whose weakness led to General George Monck then mounting a coup, which saw the return of Prince Charles as King Charles II, and the Royalists’ return to power in 1660. Cromwell’s corpse was subsequently dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.
2. What year was the Berlin Wall built?
1961 – CONSTRUCTING OPPRESSION: THE BERLIN WALL AND THE LITERAL IRON CURTAIN.
3. What is the earliest known culture that built cities on the Indian subcontinent, dating to 2500 BCE to 1700 BCE?
Harappan – Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Harappan or Indus Valley civilisation was one of three early civilisations of the Near East and South Asia. It was the most widespread, with sites stretching from today’s northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India. There are five major urban sites: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi.
4. What is the significance of the Maersk Alabama?
It is the only US flagged vessel to be seized by pirates since 1822 – The Maersk Alabama hijacking occurred on 8 April 2009, when four pirates seized the cargo ship Maersk Alabama 240 nautical miles southeast of Eyl, Somalia. The hijacking ended after a rescue effort by the United States Navy on 12 April.
The incident was the first successful pirate seizure of a ship registered under the American flag since the early 19th century.
5. In what year did India gain independence?
1947 – On 3 June 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the partitioning of British India into India and Pakistan. This came into effect only 2 months later on 15 August 1947.
Violent clashes between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims followed. Massive population exchanges occurred between the two newly formed states in the months immediately following the partition, over 14 million people fled from one state to the other. At least 2 million people dies in the violence.
6. By what other title is Charlemagne known?
Charles the Great – Charlemagne or Charles the Great was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Emperor of the Romans from 800. During the Early Middle Ages, Charlemagne united the majority of western and central Europe. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire around three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is known as the Carolingian Empire.
7. In which war did the most Australian Servicemen die?
WW1 – 61,829
WW2 – 36,737
Korean War – 339
Vietnam War – 521
8. Who founded the Knights Templar?
Hugues de Payens – In January 1120, and King Baldwin II of Jerusalem granted the Templars a headquarters in a wing of the royal palace on the Temple Mount in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque. The new order took the name Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or “Templar” knights. Their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse, emphasizing the order’s poverty.
The Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, receiving money, land, businesses, and noble-born sons from families who were eager to help with the fight in the Holy Land. After accumulating wealth in this manner throughout Europe and Outremer, in 1150 the Templars began issuing letters of credit for pilgrims journeying to the Holy Land. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a Templar location in Europe, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, and received equal value upon arrival in Outremer.
After almost 200 years the order became one of the richest and most powerful groups in Europe. This, along with their secrecy created distrust, which was exploited by King Philip IV of France, who was deeply in debt to the order. On Friday the 13th of October 1307, he had many of the order’s members in France arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, and burned them at the stake. Pope Clement V disbanded the order in 1312 under pressure from King Philip.
9. The worlds oldest continually operating company was started in which country in 578CE?
Japan – Kongō Gumi opened in 578 CE in Japan. They were commissioned to build Japan’s first Buddhist temple Shitennō-Ji. They were still going strong 1000 years later, building Osaka Castle in 1583. Find out about the other oldest companies still in existence.
10. In 1960 prosecutor Mervyn Griffith-Jones asked “was this the kind of book you would wish your wife or servants to read?” Which book was he referring to?
Lady Chatterley’s Lover – Lady Chatterley’s Lover is a novel by English author D. H. Lawrence. An uncensored version was published in the United Kingdom in 1960, where it was the subject of an obscenity trial, which the publisher Penguin Books won. The prosecution was ridiculed for being out of touch with changing social norms. The publicity lead to the rapid sale of three million copies of the book.